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These are the books and articles that I have consulted so far, these volumes represent a fraction of all the published work that is available within and peripheral to the field of Artificial Life.

Alphert, Mark, (1999), Profile: John Horton Conway. Scientific American, April, pp. 40-42.


Chalmers, David J., (1995), The Puzzle of Conscious Experience. Scientific American, December, pp. 80-86.

Churchland, Paul M., Churchland, Patricia S., (1990), Could a Machine Think. Scientific American, January, pp. 32-37.

Codd, Edgar F., (1968), Cellular Automata, (pp. 34-68), New York, NY; Academic Press.

A very detailed description of an intact distillation of Von Neumann's 29-state CA into an 8-state version, along with details on constructing sheathed circuitry.


Dain, Robert A., (1999), Development of Mobile Robot Wall-Following Algorithms using Genetic Programming In Karr, Charles L., Freeman L. Michael (Ed.), Industrial Applications of Genetic Algorithms, (pp. 269-283), New York, NY; CRC Press.


Dennet, Daniel, (1995), Artificial Life as Philosophy. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 291-292), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Dewdney, A. K., (1988), The Evolution of Finite Living Blobs. In The Armchair Universe, (pp. 252-263), Toronto, ON; W.H. Freeman and Company.


Dewdney, A. K., (1988), One Dimensional Computers. In The Armchair Universe, (pp. 135-148), Toronto, ON; W.H. Freeman and Company


Drexler, K. Eric, (1986), Engines of Creation, The coming Era of Nanotechnology. (pp.), New York, NY; Anchor Books.

Here Drexler details in a non-technical fashion, the future of a Nanotech dominated world.


Drexler, K. Eric, (1992), Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. (pp. 342-371), Toronto ON; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This is Drexler's technical bible for the construction of nano-assemblers and all the devices peripheral to this seed-machine. All arguments are accompanied by rigorous proofs.


Gardner, Martin, (1990), The New Ambidextrous Universe. (pp. 130-134), New York, NY; W.H. Freeman and Company.

Goldberg, David E., (1993), Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning. (pp. 27-74), Reading, MA; Addison-Wesley Publishing Inc.

The details of Goldberg's ideas on Genetic Algorithms stemming from his thesis on pipeline flow control through GA techniques are here.


Hofstadter, Douglas R., (1979), Godel,Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. (pp. 495-548), New York, NY; Random House Inc.

The ultimate literary work spanning all the fields of cognitive science.

Horgan, John, (1995), Can Science Explain Consciousness. Scientific American, July, pp. 88-94.


Kaneko, Kunihiko, (1995), Chaos as a Source of Complexity and Diversity in Evolution. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 163-178), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Kauffman, Stuart A., (1993), The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. (pp. 407-522), New York, NY; Oxford University Press.

A complete argument for the details of the functioning of life at a genetic level. see Random Boolean Networks


Kurzweil, Ray, (1999), The Age of Spiritual Machines. (pp. 9-97), New York, NY; Penguin Group.

Kurzweil presents the argument for the "Law of Accelerating Returns" which is a sort of Moore's law for technological change; intelligent machines around 2030 will surpass us.


Maes, Pattie, (1995), Modeling Adaptive Autonomous Agents. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 135-162), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

Maes, Pattie, (1997), Firefly's Pattie. Wired, December, pp. 236.

Maes, Pattie, (1995), Agents of Change. Wired, April, pp. 236.


Mitchel, M., Forrest, S., (1995), Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 267-289), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Michalewicz, Zbigniew, (1992), Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs.(2nd Edition) (pp. 31-53), Berlin, DE; Springer-Verlag.

An excellent introduction to the specific mechanics of Genetic Algorithms.

Michalski, Ryszard S., Carbonell, Jaime G., Mitchell, Tom M., (1983), Biological Evolution; Heuristics used to generate plausible mutations. In Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, (pp. 286-302), Palo Alto CA; Tioga Publishing Company.

Niklas, Karl J, (1986), Computer-simulated Plant Evolution. Scientific American, March, pp. 78-86.


Pecht, Michael, (1993), Placement and Routing of Electronic Modules. (pp. 5-96), New York, NY; Marcel Dekker, Inc.


Penrose, Rodger, (1989), The Emperorís New Mind. , (pp. 41-97), Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Penrose first shows us how much can simulate anything using a universal Turing machine and the halting problem, he then goes on to describe how we cannot completely determine every subatomic particle within the mind; and therefore will never be able to replicate (or download it).


Penrose, Rodger, (1994), Shadows of the Mind. , (pp. 393-396), Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Penrose again presents the argument for the nature of consciousness as a single quantum state that exists within the water content of the micro-tubules present within the nervous system.


Picton, Phil, (1994), Introduction to Neural Networks (pp. 1-12), London, UK; Macmillan Press.


Ray, Thomas S., (1995), An Evolutionary Approach to Synthetic Biology: Zen and the Art of Creating Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 267-289), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Spafford, Eugene H., (1995), Computer Viruses as Artificial Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 249-266), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Steels, Luc, (), The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 75-110), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Taylor, Charles, Jefferson, David, (1995), Artificial Life as a Tool for Biological Inquiry. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 1-14), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.


Tank, David W., Hopfield, John J., (1987), Collective Computation in Neuronlike Circuits. Scientific American, December, pp. 104-114.


Von Neumann, John, (1958), The Computer and the Brain. , (pp. 60-72), Westford, MA, Yale University Press.
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