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These are the books and articles that I have consulted so far, these volumes represent a fraction of all the published work that is available within and peripheral to the field of Artificial Life.

Alphert, Mark, (1999), Profile: John Horton Conway. Scientific American, April, pp. 40-42.

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Chalmers, David J., (1995), The Puzzle of Conscious Experience. Scientific American, December, pp. 80-86.

Churchland, Paul M., Churchland, Patricia S., (1990), Could a Machine Think. Scientific American, January, pp. 32-37.

Codd, Edgar F., (1968), Cellular Automata, (pp. 34-68), New York, NY; Academic Press.

A very detailed description of an intact distillation of Von Neumann's 29-state CA into an 8-state version, along with details on constructing sheathed circuitry.

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Dain, Robert A., (1999), Development of Mobile Robot Wall-Following Algorithms using Genetic Programming In Karr, Charles L., Freeman L. Michael (Ed.), Industrial Applications of Genetic Algorithms, (pp. 269-283), New York, NY; CRC Press.

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Dennet, Daniel, (1995), Artificial Life as Philosophy. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 291-292), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Dewdney, A. K., (1988), The Evolution of Finite Living Blobs. In The Armchair Universe, (pp. 252-263), Toronto, ON; W.H. Freeman and Company.

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Dewdney, A. K., (1988), One Dimensional Computers. In The Armchair Universe, (pp. 135-148), Toronto, ON; W.H. Freeman and Company

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Drexler, K. Eric, (1986), Engines of Creation, The coming Era of Nanotechnology. (pp.), New York, NY; Anchor Books.

Here Drexler details in a non-technical fashion, the future of a Nanotech dominated world.

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Drexler, K. Eric, (1992), Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. (pp. 342-371), Toronto ON; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This is Drexler's technical bible for the construction of nano-assemblers and all the devices peripheral to this seed-machine. All arguments are accompanied by rigorous proofs.

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Gardner, Martin, (1990), The New Ambidextrous Universe. (pp. 130-134), New York, NY; W.H. Freeman and Company.

Goldberg, David E., (1993), Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning. (pp. 27-74), Reading, MA; Addison-Wesley Publishing Inc.

The details of Goldberg's ideas on Genetic Algorithms stemming from his thesis on pipeline flow control through GA techniques are here.

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Hofstadter, Douglas R., (1979), Godel,Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. (pp. 495-548), New York, NY; Random House Inc.

The ultimate literary work spanning all the fields of cognitive science.

Horgan, John, (1995), Can Science Explain Consciousness. Scientific American, July, pp. 88-94.

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Kaneko, Kunihiko, (1995), Chaos as a Source of Complexity and Diversity in Evolution. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 163-178), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Kauffman, Stuart A., (1993), The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. (pp. 407-522), New York, NY; Oxford University Press.

A complete argument for the details of the functioning of life at a genetic level. see Random Boolean Networks

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Kurzweil, Ray, (1999), The Age of Spiritual Machines. (pp. 9-97), New York, NY; Penguin Group.

Kurzweil presents the argument for the "Law of Accelerating Returns" which is a sort of Moore's law for technological change; intelligent machines around 2030 will surpass us.

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Maes, Pattie, (1995), Modeling Adaptive Autonomous Agents. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 135-162), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

Maes, Pattie, (1997), Firefly's Pattie. Wired, December, pp. 236.

Maes, Pattie, (1995), Agents of Change. Wired, April, pp. 236.

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Mitchel, M., Forrest, S., (1995), Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 267-289), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Michalewicz, Zbigniew, (1992), Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs.(2nd Edition) (pp. 31-53), Berlin, DE; Springer-Verlag.

An excellent introduction to the specific mechanics of Genetic Algorithms.

Michalski, Ryszard S., Carbonell, Jaime G., Mitchell, Tom M., (1983), Biological Evolution; Heuristics used to generate plausible mutations. In Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, (pp. 286-302), Palo Alto CA; Tioga Publishing Company.

Niklas, Karl J, (1986), Computer-simulated Plant Evolution. Scientific American, March, pp. 78-86.

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Pecht, Michael, (1993), Placement and Routing of Electronic Modules. (pp. 5-96), New York, NY; Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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Penrose, Rodger, (1989), The Emperorís New Mind. , (pp. 41-97), Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Penrose first shows us how much can simulate anything using a universal Turing machine and the halting problem, he then goes on to describe how we cannot completely determine every subatomic particle within the mind; and therefore will never be able to replicate (or download it).

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Penrose, Rodger, (1994), Shadows of the Mind. , (pp. 393-396), Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Penrose again presents the argument for the nature of consciousness as a single quantum state that exists within the water content of the micro-tubules present within the nervous system.

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Picton, Phil, (1994), Introduction to Neural Networks (pp. 1-12), London, UK; Macmillan Press.

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Ray, Thomas S., (1995), An Evolutionary Approach to Synthetic Biology: Zen and the Art of Creating Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 267-289), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Spafford, Eugene H., (1995), Computer Viruses as Artificial Life. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 249-266), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Steels, Luc, (), The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 75-110), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Taylor, Charles, Jefferson, David, (1995), Artificial Life as a Tool for Biological Inquiry. In Langton, C. G (Ed.), Artificial Life an Overview, (pp. 1-14), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

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Tank, David W., Hopfield, John J., (1987), Collective Computation in Neuronlike Circuits. Scientific American, December, pp. 104-114.

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Von Neumann, John, (1958), The Computer and the Brain. , (pp. 60-72), Westford, MA, Yale University Press.

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